Z. A. Jordan 1963

Philosophy and Ideology
The Development of Philosophy and Marxism-Leninism in Poland since the Second World War

First published: by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland, Copyright 1963 by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, or any other means without permission from the publisher. Printed in The Netherlands by D. Reidel, Dordrecht;
Transcribed: by Sam Berner.

From the Editor: The present volume of the ‘Sovietica’ series is part of the results of an extensive research program, undertaken by the Institute of East-European Studies of the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) with the help of the Rockefeller Foundation. I would like to express here my thanks.

Yet, I think, my good sir, that it would be better for me to have a musical instrument or a chorus which I was directing in discord and out of tune, better that the mass of mankind should disagree with me and contradict me than that I, a single individual, should be out of harmony with myself and contradict myself.
Plato, Gorgias 482 bce

To my Teachers and Friends in Poland with Respect and Affection




Chapter 1. The Lwów School
Chapter 2. The Warsaw School
The Philosophers
Chapter 3. Other Schools and Other Philosophers
Chapter 4. Marxian Tradition
Chapter 5. Sociology and Social Philosophy

PART II. The Period of Reconstruction and the Rise of Marxism-Leninism

Chapter 6. The Philosophical Revival
Formal and Mathematical Logic
Chapter 7. The Beginning of Marxist-Leninist Philosophy
Some Peculiar Characreristics of the Polish Version of Marxist-Leninist Philosophy
Historical Materialism

PART III. The Years of Militancy

Chapter 8. The Road to Ascendancy
Chapter 9. The Instrumentalist Conception of Philosophy
Chapter 10. Criticism of the Warsaw School
Chapter 11. Phenomenology from the Marxist-Leninist Standpoint
Chapter 12. Criticism of Znaniecki’s Sociology and the Decline of Social Inquiry

PART IV. Formal Logic and Dialectics

Chapter 13. The Superiority of Dialectics
Chapter 14. Change, Motion, and Contradiction
Chapter 15. The Abandonment of the Logic of Contradiction

PART V. The Materialistic Theory of Knowledge, Theories of Truth and of Universals

Chapter 16. Engels’ Representative Realism and Lenin’s Theory of Perception
Chapter 17. The Causal Theory of Knowledge
Chapter 18. Anthropological Realism
Chapter 19. The Materialist Conception of Truth
Chapter 20. The Truths of Logic and Mathematics
Chapter 21. Absolute and Relative Truth and the Relativity of Knowledge
Chapter 22. The Doctrine of Partiality of Truths
Chapter 23. The Doctrine of Concreteness of Truths
Chapter 24. The Relevance of the Problem of Universals and the Rejection of the Three Classic Doctrines
Chapter 25. The Marxist-Leninist Theory of Universals
Chapter 26. The Danger of Platonism

PART VI. Marxist-Leninist Historicism and the COncept of Ideology

Chapter 27. The Methodological Approach
Chapter 28. The Nature of Historical Laws
Chapter 29. The Technological Conception of History
Chapter 30. The Empirical Meaning of Historical Materialism
Chapter 31. Prediction in the Social Sciences
Chapter 32. The Revision of the Theoretical Framework of Historical Materialism
Chapter 33. Two Interpretations of the Role of Ideology
Chapter 34. The Reappraisal of the Dual Theory of Ideology
Chapter 35. The New Principles of the History of the Philosophy and their Revision
The New Principles.
The Revisionist Trend.
The Revaluation.



Abbreviations used in the Bibliography